Mémoire DU histoire de médecine 2019/2020
Mots clés : Léonard de Vinci, André Vésale, anatomie, Renaissance.
Through their thirst for discovery and personnaly experience, Leonardo da Vinci and
André Vésale are two emblematic figures of the Renaissance. They invested by
themselves in the human anatomy studies, shaking up some dogmas inherited from
Antiquity. Their anatomical studies about human framework and muscles and
tendons are the result of two different but complementary approaches.
André Vésale describes meticulously and one after one all the elements, from head to foot. He creates the first atlas of anatomy for history and his « human factory » is an essential work. It is legitimate to think that André Vésale invents the courses of modern osteology.
On his hand, in his quest to understand the nature of Man, Leonardo da Vinci describes a topographical and functional anatomy still used today. He invents
cut anatomy and he is a precursor in the study of movements and proportions.
Leonardo da Vinci and André Vésale introduce an essential element in this science :
iconography to text illustration.